Modern Homoeopathy

Newsletter October 2007


Basic Medical Consideration (Causes, Diagnosis & Investigations)

Presented by

Dr. Pawan S. Chandak

Parbhani, India


Cell: +91-9422924861

Definition: Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term.

There are strict definitions of infertility used by many doctors. However, there are also similar terms, e.g. subfertility for a more benign condition and fecundity for the natural improbability to conceive.


Reproductive endocrinologists, the doctors specializing in infertility, consider a couple to be infertile if:


Healthy couples in their mid-20s having regular sex have a one-in-four chance of getting pregnant in any given month. This is called "Fecundity".



A couple that has tried unsuccessfully to have a child for a year or more is said to be subfertile. The couple's fecundability rate is approximately 3-5%. Many of its causes are the same as those of infertility. Such causes could be endometriosis, or polycystic ovarian syndrome.



(1)Infertility affects approximately 10% of people of reproductive age and 15% of couples.

(2) Roughly 40% of cases involve a male contribution or factor, 40% involve a female factor, and the remainder involve both sexes.


This section deals with unintentional causes of sterility. For more information about surgical techniques for preventing procreation, see sterilization.

Some women are infertile because their ovaries do not mature and release eggs. In this case synthetic FSH by injection or Clomid (Clomiphene citrate) via a pill can be given to stimulate follicles to mature in the ovaries.

Causes in either sex

Factors that can cause male as well as female infertility are:

Female infertility

Factors relating only to female infertility are:

General factors


Male infertility

Factors relating only to male infertility include:

Combined infertility

In some cases, both the man and woman may be infertile or sub-fertile, and the couple's infertility arises from the combination of these conditions. In other cases, the cause is suspected to be immunological or genetic; it may be that each partner is independently fertile but the couple cannot conceive together without assistance.


Unexplained infertility

In about 15% of cases the infertility investigation will show no abnormalities. In these cases abnormalities are likely to be present but not detected by current methods. Possible problems could be that the egg is not released at the optimum time for fertilization, that it may not enter the fallopian tube, sperm may not be able to reach the egg, fertilization may fail to occur, transport of the zygote may be disturbed, or implantation fails. It is increasingly recognized that egg quality is of critical importance and women of advanced maternal age have eggs of reduced capacity for normal and successful fertilization.


Male infertility

The diagnosis of infertility begins with a medical history and physical exam by a urologist, preferably one with experience or    who specializes in male infertility. The provider may order blood tests to look for hormone imbalances or disease. A semen sample will be needed. Blood tests may indicate genetic causes.


In the majority of cases of male infertility and low sperm quality, no clear cause can be identified with current diagnostic methods.

Medical history

Physical examination


Sperm sample

Main article: semen quality

The volume of the semen is measured, as well as the number of sperm in the sample. How well the sperm move is also assessed. This is the most common type of fertility testing[6].

Blood sample

A blood sample can reveal genetic causes of infertility, e.g. a Y chromosome microdeletion, cystic fibrosis.

Female infertility


  1. “Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility” (2006). American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

  2. ^ Male Infertility. Infertility. Armenian Medical Network (2006).

  3. ^ American Society for Reproductive Medicine (FAQ)

  4. ^

  5. ^ Rowe PJ, Comhaire FH, Hargreave TB, Mahmoud AMA. WHO Manual for the Standardized Investigation, Diagnosis and Management of the Infertile Male. Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-77474-8.

  6. ^ Fertility Testing

  7. ^

  8. ^ Domar AD, Zuttermeister PC, Friedman R. The psychological impact of infertility: a comparison with patients with other medical conditions. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 1993;14 Suppl:45-52. PMID 8142988.

  9. ^ Beutel M, Kupfer J, Kirchmeyer P, Kehde S, Kohn FM, Schroeder-Printzen I, Gips H, Herrero HJG, Weidner W. Treatment-related stresses and depression in couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment by IVF or ICSI. Andrologia. 31 (1999): 27-35.

  10. ^ Schmidt et al. "The Social Epidemiology of Coping with Infertility." Human Reproduction. 20 (2005): 1044-1052.

Article Presented by

Dr. Pawan S. Chandak

‘Shradha’ Vishnu nagar,

Basmat Road, Parbhani 431401

Maharashtra, India

Cell: +91-9422924861